Ok, I just heard back from my expert, and I'm just going to copy and paste his reply:
You can offer discounts with cash paying customers no matter what. However, if you have an insurance patient and bill insurance by law you cannot discount the service, you are required in some states to collect the Co-Payment. But, you are not required to bill the patient for the balance due if you do not wish to do so; you can but because of hard times many will not pay and stop coming for treatment. So, in a way they are getting a discount, if you don't bill for the remainder of the balance. Very few insurance companies pay 100% of what you bill. The typical is 80% of what you bill will be paid by the insurance company (minus the co-pay at the time of service).
Are you filing via paper or via electronic filing?
Cash patients you don't have to do soap notes on if you don't want to. Insurance patients you have to, otherwise if something happens to the patient and sues you need to have documented proof of what happened each session. You will also from time to time get your records subpoenaed so be prepared. If you complete the 1500 form, copy the prescription and complete the soap note for each session and put it in your charts then you're covered.
I have been called to testify 2 times now as an expert witness. You will be given a copy of your soap notes to re-read to refresh your memory then asked questions about what happened. Usually, you will be called to court when the patient is suing the insurance company for refusing to pay for bills. This happens primarily with workers compensation and Auto accidents or PIP cases.
Insurance companies won't let massage therapists in some states be in network. So you can't contract with them; they won't let you. If they send you a contract they don't think you're an LMT.
The chiro CAN offer free assessments. Insurance companies have nothing to say about that, unless he is trying to bill the insurance company for the assessment and not collecting a co-pay. Then no, he can't do that. You can do the same. Offer a free assessment for treatment without charging. You just can't charge the insurance company for the assessment, and cannot collect a co-pay.
So that's the indepth-answer. Does that cover it? If not, tell me what else you need to know, and I'll work on it.